Curriculum History Senior Secondary NIOS




Total Reading Time : 240 Hours                                                          Max. Marks 100




History is the scientific study of human beings and the evolution of human society in point of time and in different ages. As such it occupies all important place in the school curricu-lum. It is, therefore, taught as a general subject forming a part of Social Science both at the Middle and the Secondary Stages. At the Middle Stage, entire Indian History is covered, while at the Secondary Stage, the land marks in the development of human society are taught.

At the Senior Secondary Stage, History becomes an elective subject. Its main thrust is to bridge the gap between the presence of change-oriented technologies of today and the con-tinuity of our cultural tradition so as to ensure that the coming generation will represent the fine synthesis between change and continuity. It is, therefore, deemed essential to take up the entire Indian History from the Ancient to the Modem period for Senior Secondary Stage.

The rationale for taking up the teaching of History at this stage is :

1.            to promote an understanding of the major stages in the evolution of Indian society through the ages.

2.            to develop an understanding of the historical forces responsible for the evolution of Indian society in the Ancient, Medieval and Modem times.

3.            to develop an appreciation of

(i)         the diverse cultural and social systems of the people living indifferent parts of the country.

(ii)       the richness, variety and composite nature of Indian culture.

(iii)      the growth of various components of Indian culture, legitimate pride in the achieve-ment of Indian people in. different parts of the country.

(iv)     the process of change which evolved as a result of interaction with other cul-tures.

4.            to identify the fissiparous trends which hampered the growth of the Indian nation in different periods.

5.            to recognize that the Indian culture has not remained and developed in isolation, rather was a result of a synthesis of different cultures and to understand the contemporary process of change, continuity and development.


6.            to remove from the minds of the younger generation prejudices and complexes transmitted from the biased interpretation of History, the social environment and the accident of birth.

7.          to develop an appreciation of the contribution made by the people from all parts of the country in the making of the national heritage.

8.          to foster proper understanding of the contemporary problems of India in historical perspective so as to develop an enlightened citizenship for active participation in the establishment of a just social order.

9.          to inculcate scientific temper and objectivity to the study of India’s past in order to relate to the present.


The study of History at this stage is intended to initiate and introduce students to the ‘Elements of Historical Methodology’ as also how the historian thinks and works. For this, he should be acquainted with the various types of sources which form the basis of history and develop the competence to evaluate the reliability of the sources.




Keeping in view the implications of the National Policy on Education (May, 1986, PP. 3,4) providing access to education of a comparable quality for all students, irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex and the Programmes of Action (August, 1986, P. 144) emphasizing the immediate need for introducing the curricular change in the content of history essential to nurture national identity, protect, preserve and promote our common cultural heritage, the approach to the teaching-learning of History at the +2 Stage (Senior Secondary) will highlight the following:


1.           The new focus will be on the socio-economic and cultural development of man in society. The political developments and dynastic treatment, which has been hitherto the main thrust in the teaching-learning process, will no longer be given undue emphasis.

2.          The emphasis at this stage will be laid on the development of a composite culture and national integration by highlighting the contribution of the people from all parts of the country through the ages. The development of the components of composite culture has assumed different forms in different periods of Indian History. In Ancient and Medieval India, the cultural identity and unity formed the main basis whereas in Modern India, the political unification during the British rule constituted the main plank of the composite culture which was strengthened further with the integration of the Princely States with the India Union.

3.          It is necessary to highlight the role, the suffering and sacrifice of the people in the struggle for freedom against the British rule irrespective of religion and region.

4.          Other important areas include the removal of social evils and emancipation of women in modern India.


The study of History at this stage will not remain confined to the reading material alone. The whole process will be activity oriented with more emphasis on the self-learning activities of the learners. To create further interest in the study of History frequent use will be made of audio-visual aids (T.V.-CCTV), maps, charts, time-line, genealogical tables and the learner will be required to study historical geography of India and undertake field trips wherever feasible. The development of the entire process of learning History will take place with the close co-operation and active participation of the learner during the contact programmes.

Each module of the course (Unit and Sub-Unit) has been divided into two parts-the General Foundation Units and the Certification Units. The General Foundation Units provide a comprehensive view of Indian History in chronological sequence for proper understanding of the main events of Indian History in self-contained units. The Certification Units are to be studied in reasonable depth including interpretation critical thinIdng and balanced views for eItemal examination at the Senior Secondary level.















Ancient Indian History





Climax of Ancient India





Legacy of Ancient India





Rise and Fan of the Delhi Sultanate





The Mughal Empire





Contribution of Medieval India





Renascent India





India’s Struggle for Independence




















The General Foundation units form the base for understanding





the Certification-units. All units should therefore be studied.





However the examination will be based only on the units marked




















The erstwhile Module 9 India Since Independence has now been





incorporated as Unit 65 India Since Independence in Module 8.













Study Time : 25 hrs.










General Foundation

General Foundation

Marks : 08


This module is designed to highlight the continuity and change in the socio-religious life of the Harappan and Vedic cultures followed by the interaction of Brahamanism, Jainism, Buddhism, the impact of Persian and Greek culture and the growth of political unity under Magadh.


Knowledge of the historical geography of ancient India. A proper perspective of the Dravidian Civilisation.

Knowledge of the beginning of the Age of Metals—use of copper and bronze which produced the earliest urban civilisation in India.




Unit 1 Prehistoric India


1.1       Pre-historic India

— Impact of geography on Indian History

— Unity in Diversity

— Ancient people of India

— Pre-historic Cultures

— Palaeolithic Culture

— Neolithic Culture

— Chalcolithic Culture


Unit 2 The Harappan Civilisation


2.1       Salient features of the Harappan Civilisation

— Sites, Extent and Period

— Town Planning

— Social Life

— Crafts and Trade

— Pottery

— Seals

— Terra-cotta figurines

— Religion

— Script

— Weights and Measures

— Disappearance


Certification                  2.2        Its Significance

-           Legacy of the Harappan Civilization

-           Harappan Civilisation and West Asia

-           Harappans Aryans and the Vedic


Unit 3 The Vedic Age


General Foundation       3.1        The Rig-Vedic Age


-           The Aryan Advent

-           Political Organisation

-           Early Aryan Society

-           Economic Life

-           Rig Vedic Gods


General Foundation       3.2        The Later Vedic Age


-           Expansion

-           Political Changes

-           Material Life

-           Social Development

-           The Epic Age

-           Religion


Certification                  3.3        Importance of Vedas


-           Schools of Vedic Philosophy

-            Vedic Literature : Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas

-           The Upanishads and the Puranas

-           Concept of Dharma: Four ends of Life

-            Evolution of the Caste System- The Dharmashastras

-           Varnashrama System (Four Stages of Life)


Unit 4 Ancient Indian Religions


General Foundation       4.1 Jainism


-           Vardhaman Mahavira

-           Doctrine of Jainism

-           Spread of Jainism

-           Rise of Sects


General Foundation       4.2        Buddhism


-           Life of Gautama Buddha

-           Doctrines of Buddhism

-           Spread of Buddhism

-           Rise of Sects

-           Decline of Buddhism


Certification                  4.3 Contribution of Jainism and Buddhism


-           Importance of Jainism


-           Influence of Buddhism


-           Comparison of Jainism with Buddhism


Unit 5 Growth of Political Unity


General Foundation


Rise of Magadh




Concept of Political Unity




Sixteen Mahajanapadas




Magadhan Supremacy




The Nandas

General Foundation


Persian and Greek Invasions




Persian Conquest




Alexander’s Invasion




Extinction of Greek rule in Northwest India



Importance of Magadhan Supremacy and Foreign Invasions




Importance of the first Magadhan Empire




Results of the Persian Impact




Effects of Alexander’s Invasion

Suggested Activities for




Extended Learning


Prepare a time line showing:




the period of Harappan Civilisation




the Rig-Vedic Age




the Epic Period




the Jaina-Buddhist period.




the rise of first Magadhan Empire




the invasion of Alexander


-           Draw a list of important Vedic, Jaina and Buddhist literature relating to this period.

-           List important archaeological materials of the Harappan civilisation.

-            On a given outline map of India show the following:


(1)    Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal and Kalibangan

(2)    Areas of Mahajanapadas of

(a)   Avanti (b) Gandhara (c) Kosala (d) Magadh

(e)   Vatsa (f) Matsya

(3)    Route of Alexander’s invasion

(4)      Extent of Magadhan Empire under Mahapadma Nanda,

(5)      Kausambi, Mathura, Pataliputra, Rajagriha, Sravasti, Inraprastha, Texila, Ujjain, Vaishali, Viratnagar.


-            A visit to a nearby museum, if there is one, to see the archaeological remains of ancient Indian bricks, pottery, seals, implements, ornaments, toys and idols. Collect available picture postcards relating to the art, sculpture and architecture of ancient Indian Published by the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi


-            Read about the social and political conditions as reflected in the ‘Epics’ (Ramayan and Mahabharata).






Study Time: 25 hrs.                                                                        Max. Marks: 10









This module is designed to highlight the cultural aspects of life in the Maurya, Gupta and Vardhana empires and also the development of culture in Eastern and Southern India.

*   Rise of Mahajanapadas and transition from Republic to the centralised monarchy.

*       Spread of Indian religions: Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.

*       Cultural impact of the Persian and the Greek Invasions.





Unit 1 The Age of Mauryas


General Foundation                    -      Chandra Gupta Maurya

-           Imperial organisation

-           Ashoka; Impact of the Kalinga War

-           Dharma and spread of Buddhism

-           Edicts

-           Cause of Downfall of the Mauryan Empire


Unit 2 Kanishka and Satavahanas


General Foundation       2.1        The Indo-Greeks

-           The Sakas

-           The Parthians

-           The Kushans – Kanishka-Achievements of Kanishka

2.2                The Satavahanas

-           Political Developments

-           Foreign Trade and Settlements

-            Pattern of Social Life

-            Religious Life


Unit 3 The Gupta Empire and Harsha


General Foundation        3.1        The Gupta Empire


-            Rise and expansion of the Gupta Empire

-            Chandragupta I

-            Samudragupta

-            Chandragupta II

-            Decline of the Gupta Empire-Invasions of the Hunas


Certification                  3.2        Life in the Gupta Age


-            Administration

-            Social development-Status of women

-            Economic life

-            Religious life

-            Account of Fa-hsien


Certification                  3.3        Harsha


-            Main events

-            The Assembly at Kanauj,

-            Account of Hsuan Tsang

-            Nalanda University


Unit 4 Development in Eastern and Southern India


General Foundation        4.1        Development of Culture in

-            Assam

-            Bengal

-            Kalinga


General Foundation        4.2 Early Kingdoms of the South

-            Early Cholas, The Cheras and Pandyas

-            The Chalukyas

-            The Rashtrakutas

-            The Pallavas

-            The Cholas


Unit 5 Life under the Maurya and The Gupta Empire


Certification                               -      Asoka’s place in History

-            Contacts with Central Asian Countries

-            Growth of Brahmanism and Buddhism

-            Development of Art, Architecture, Painting, Literature under the Guptas



Science and Technology under the Guptas

Suggested Activities for

Visiting nearby museum to prepare list of archaeological remains

Extended Learning


and pieces of the Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta Age


Identifying sea-ports of India on a map of India.


Studying the contributions of Aryabhatta to the development



of Science.






Study Time : 25


Max. Marks : 12


This module is designed to highlight the development of Indian


painting, sculpture and different styles of architecture, schools of


philosophy and development of science in ancient India. It also


reflects a wonderful resource in men and money possessed by the


rulers and the changes in spiritual ideals and ideas. Art in ancient


India was a true reflex of national mind. Modern India is indebted to


the important cultural contributions of ancient India.


A proper understanding of different phases of evolution of Indian




Indian colonial and cultural expansion in Asia,


Appreciation of the cultural contributions of the Maurya,



Kushan, Gupta and Vardhana Empires.




General Foundation     Unit 1 Indian Culture Abroad


— Spread of Indian Culture in West Asia, Tibet, China and South East Asia

—   Colonial Settlement Abroad

—   Development of Trade and Commerce

—   Art and Architecture—Angkor Vat and Borobudur


Certification                Unit 2 Our Cultural Heritage


Contributions of Ancient India :

—   Aryan—non-Aryan Synthesis

—   Agrarian Economy

—   Rise of Landed class





Changes in the Vama System




Hindu-Jain-Buddhist Interaction




The Coming of Christianity




Mathematics and Medicine




Literature and Philosophy: The Tamil Hertiage




Sculpture, Painting and Architecture: Brief




Outlines of Schools of Art; Gandhara and




Mathura: Contributions of the Pallavas and the




Cholas; Mahabalipuram, Tanjore and Halebid

Suggested Activities


Visiting important historical places e.g. Bodhgaya,




Sarnath, Sanchi, Mount Abu, Mahabalipuram,




Kanchipuram, Tanjore and Halebid, Ajanta and








Collecting picture postcards of important




sculptures of the period.




Locating important cultural sites on a map of India.







Study Time: 20 hrs.


Marks: 08


This module is designed to highlight the foundation, expansion and


disintegration of the Delhi Sultanate, Vijaynagar and Bahmani Kingdoms and


also the invasion of the Mongols and the advent of the Portuguese in India.


*  The state of affairs under different dynasties of Rajputs, their internal






*  Temptation of invaders for Indian wealth.




General Foundation       Unit 1 Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate


1.1   Advent of Islam in India

-           Coming of Arab traders

-           Conquest of Sind (712 A.D.)


General Foundation       1.2 Indian invasion of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (996-1030 A.D.)


-         The emergence of Rajput states and the struggle for supremacy.




-Advent of Muhammed Ghuri (1173-1205 A.D.) and



the Battles of Tarain



-The Mamluk Sultans, Iltutmish, Raziya and Balban



-The Mongol invasions



-Conquest of Northern India by the Mamluk Sultans



A comparative estimate of the achievements of Sultan



Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Ghuri.



-Effects of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni’s invasion of India.


-     Causes of success of Turkish conquest of Northern India and the failure of Rajput resistance.

-     Achievements of Iltutmish and Balban.


Unit 2 Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Bin Tughlaq


General Foundation       2.1   The Khaljis (1210-1320)


-           Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji (1210-96)

-           Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316)

-           Expansion of Delhi Sultanate: Devgiri, Rajputana and Malwa

-           Deccan Expedition of Malik Kafur (1307)

-           Mongol Invasions


General Foundation       2.2     The Tughlaqs (1320-1412 A.D.)


-           Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-24 A.D.)

-           Territorial expansion and suppression of revolts

-           Fall of Warangal

-           Accession of Muhammad Tughlaq

-           Expansion in the South: Kampili and Hoysala


Certification                  2.3  Reforms of Alauddin Khalji


-           Military Organisation

-           Agrarian Reforms

-           Market Regulations

-           Assessment of Reforms


Certification                  2.4  Experiments of Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq (1325-1351 A.D.)


-           Transfer of Capital

-           Taxation in the Doab

-           Introduction of Token Currency

-           Invasion of Khurasan

-           Ibn Batuta

-           Appraisal of the Experiments


Unit 3 Disintegration of the Delhi Sultanate


General Foundation       3.1        Firuz Tughlaq and his Successors

                                                -           Invasion of Timur (1398)

— Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Jaunpur, Gujarat, Malwa, Bengal, Kashmir

—   The Saiyids and the Lodi Sultans


Certification                3.2  Impact of Reforms of Firuz Tughlaq


—   Effects of Timur’s invasion of India

—   Estimate of Zainul Abidin of Kashmir

—   Achievements of Sikander Lodi


Unit 4 Rise and fall of the Vijaynagar and Bahmani Kingdoms


General Foundation     4.1  Foundation of the Vijaynagar Kingdom


— Rise and expansion of the Bahamani Kingdom and conflict with Vijaynagar

—   Advent of the Portuguese

—   Bread-up of the Bahmani Kingdom

—   Battle of Talikota and Distintegration of the Vijaynagar Kingdom.


Certification                4.2. Climax of Vijaynagar : Deva Raya II, Krishna Deva Raya III


—   Evaluation of the Achievements of Mahmud Gawan

—   Causes of the break-up of the Bahmani Kingdom

—   Causes of the downfall of the Vijaynagar Kingdom


Suggested Activities for Extended Learning

                                                     — Visit to a nearby museum of any place historical importance related to the Delhi Sultanate

— Collection of the extract from account of foreign travellers visiting Vijaynagar Kingdom.

— Study the extent of the territories under the provincial dynasties of Jaunpur, Gujarat, Malwa, Mewar and Kashmir.

— Study the strength and weaknesses of Pataliputra, Kanauj, Daulatabad and Calcutta (until 1911) as capitals of India.






Study Time : 30 hrs.                                                                           Max. Marks : 10


Approach                    This module is designed to highlight the efforts of the Mughals towards political integration of India and development of a composite culture. It also identifies the forces which contributed to the disintegration of the Mughal Empire and the emergence of independent provincial states.



Pre-requisite * Recognizing the factors which led to the rapid changes of dynasties Knowledge during (the Delhi Sultanate)


*      Understanding the political condition of India in the fifteenth century.

*      Knowledge of the results of Timur’s invasion of India.

*      Knowledge of the weaknesses of the Lodi dynasty which helped Babur to establish Mughal rule in India.




Unit 1 Establishment of the Mughal Empire


General Foundation


Establishment of the Mughal Empire




India at the opening of the sixteenth century




Babur and the foundation of the Mughal Empire.




Humayun’s struggle with Bahadur Shah and Sher Shah




End of Sur Dynasty and return of Humayun



Significance of Babur’s advent into India




Administration of Sher Shah


Unit 2 Consolidation of the Mughal Empire

General Foundation


Accession of Akbar and expansion of the Mughal Empire




Jahangir and Shah Jahan




Foreign Policy of the Mughals: North Western




Frontier and Central Asia.



Achievements of Akbar: Efforts towards Integration




Assessment of the achievements of Jahangir and




Shah Jahan


Unit 3 Decline of the Mughal Empire


General Foundation


Aurangzeb and War of Succession




Relations with Assam and Bengal




Popular Revolts : Jats, Satnamis, Bundelkhand



Role of Aurangzeb




Causes of Aurangzeb’s success in the War of








Significance of Popular Revolts


Unit 4 Mughal Relations with Rajputs and Sikhs


General Foundation       4.1        Babur and the Rajputs


-           Akbar’s Rajput policy: Conquest of Chittor, Ranthambhor

-           Rana Pratap and war with Akbar

-           Surrender of Mewar (1614)

-           Aurangzeb’s relations with the Sikh Gurus: Guru Amar Das and Guru Ram Das

-           Jahangir and Sikh Gurus: Guru Arjun Das and Guru Hargovind

-           Aurangzeb and Sikh Gurus: Tegh Bahadur and Gobind Singh


Certification                  4.2        Evaluation of Rajput policy of the Mughals


-            Assessment of the Mughal Policy towards the Sikhs.


Unit 5 Mughal Empire and the Deccan


General Foundation       5.1        Mughal Policy towards the Deccan under Akbar


-           Conquest of Berar, Ahmadnagar and Khandesh

-           Shah Jahan and the Deccan

-           Viceroyalty of Aurangzeb

-            Annexation of Bijapur and Golconda by Aurangzeb


Certification                  5.2        Assessment of the Mughal policy towards the Deccan

-           Akbar

-           Aurangzeb


Unit 6 Rise of the Marathas


General Foundation       6.1        Rise of Shivaji


-           Aurangzeb’s relations with Shivaji


-           Aurangzeb’s war with the Marathas after Shivaji (1680-1707)-Shambhaji, Raja Ram and Tara Bai


Certification                  6.2        Shivaji’s Administration

-           Estimate of Shivaji

-           Assessment of Aurangzeb

-           Aurangzeb’s responsibility for the decline of the Mughal Empire.



Suggested Activities for Extended Learning

-       Collect picture post cards of important Mughal Monuments from Tourist Departments of Delhi and U.P.

-           Visit to a nearby historical place relating to the Mughal Forts, Palaces and gardens.

-           Prepare a flow chart of

(1)     the administrative system of Akbar

(2)     the administrative system of Shivaji





Study Time : 25 hrs.

Approach Pre-requisite




General Foundation

General Foundation


Certification General Foundation



Marks : 12


This module is designed to highlight the salient features of the social, economic, religious and cultural life of the people is medieval India so as to develop appreciation of the efforts towards the development of a composite culture. The richness and variety of our art and style of architecture reflect the synthesis of various cultures.


Contribution of the important rulers of medieval India.

Difference in State policy between the Sultanate and the Mughal Empire.


Unit 1 Administrative system and Military organization


1.1      Administrative System : Nature of the Delhi Sultans and the Caliphate

—   Secularism under Akbar

—   Central Administration

—   Provincial Administration

—   Local Administration

1.2      Military Organisation : Military System during the Sultanate period

—   The mansbdari system of the Mughals.


Unit 2 Social and Economic Conditions


2.1   Social Conditions : Feudal Society : The Sultans; the Nobles and the Slaves

—   The Mughal nobility, middle class and masses

—   Growing disparity in life-style

—   Social customs, manners and education

—   Social decline


2.2   Economic Conditions : General prosperity

—   Prices and Wages

—   Land revenue system

—   Trade and Commerce


Unit 33 Religious policy


3.1   Religious policy of Delhi Sultante



Interaction of Islam and Hinduism


The Bhakti Movement - Vaishanavites


The Sufism


Contribution of Amir Khusrau



Religious Policy of the Mughals


Akbar and Din-i-illahi


Towards cultural synthesis


Aurangzeb and alienation of Rajputs, Sikhs and Maradhas,


Unit 4 Development of Culture


Architecture under the Sultanate


Architecture under the Mughals


Development of languages and literature


Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Urdu and Regional Languages : Tamil,



Hindi, Bengali and Marathi.


Mughal painting; Music and Dance ; other arts, Gardening,



Pottery, Metal-works, Jewellery and Textiles.

Suggested Activities

Visiting any local medieval forts, palaces, gardens, museums.

for Extended Learning

Locating cultural centres on a map of India.


Listing architectural specimens of the Mughal period.


Study of the literary developments in the regional languages.


A select study of the composition of the Sufi and the Bhakti





Study the different styles of architecture during the period.


Study the different schools of painting during the Mughal





Collection of printed paintings of Mughal period published by



the Publication Division, Patiala House, New Delhi - 1.







Study Time : 20 hrs.


Marks : 08


This module is designed to promote a critical look at the British


policy which transformed a trading company into a sovereign power


and to study the impact of modern western ideas on the Indian


society which contributed to the social awakening the religious


reform movements.


Pre-requisite Knowledge

*      Knowledge of the advent of European tradingcompanies in India-the Portugueses, the Dutch, the French and the English East India company.

*      Knowledge of social conditions of Indian in the 19th  century.

*      Understanding of the growth of religious orthodoxy and intellectual decline of India in the eighteenth century.





Unit 1 Establishment of British Rule in India


General Foundation


Advent of the European Trading Nations




New trade routes to India and advent of European




trading companies.




Growth of the English East India Company




Causes of Success of the English East India Company.

General Foundation


Territorial expansion of the East India Company




Bengal, Avadh, Mysore and Sind




The fall of the Marathas




British policy towards Nepal, Burma and Afghanistan

General Foundation


Economic Impact of British Rule


-           Land Revenue Policy-The Permanent Settlement, the Ryotwari, the Mahalwari system

-           Economic exploitation of India

-            Development of modern industries and export policy


Unit 2 Assessment of the British Rule


Certification                              -     Dual System of Company’s administration in Bengal

-           System of Subsidiary Alliance

-           Doctrine of Lapse

-           Assessment of agricultural and industrial policies.

-           Ruin of Handicrafts

-           Darinof wealth

-            A Balancesheet of British Rule in India


Unit 3 English Education in India


General Foundation                    -      Early Missionary efforts and private enterprise


-           Contributions of to the growth of English education in India.

(i)                  Raja Rammohan Roy

(ii)                 Macaulay

(iii)               William Bentinck

(iv)               M.G. Ranade


-           Establishment of three Universities and downward filtration theory of education.

-           Deccan Education Society

-           Development of education in the 20th century

-           Growth of professional education

-           Move towards universalisation of elementary education and equal educational opportunity.


Unit 4 Religious Reform Movements


Certification                                                     -    The Brahmo Samaj and Raja Rammohan Roy

-            The Prarthana Samaj and Mahadev Govind Ranade

-           Arya Samaj and Swami Dayanand Saraswati

-           The Ram Krishna Mission and Swami Vivekanand

-           The Theosophical Society and Annie Besant

-           The Aligarh Movement and Sayyid Ahmed Khan


Unit 5 Social Reforms



                                                                           -      Abolition of Sati and Female Infanticide

-           Widow remarriage and education of women

-           Removal of untouchability and emphasis on social equality:

-           Role of (i) Jyotiba Phule (ii) B.R. Ambedkar, (iii) Mahatma Gandhi

-           Social legislation

-           Servants of India Society



Suggested Reading Activities for Extended Learning

*    Compare the boundaries of British territories in India in 1757 and 1857

*    Study the historical importance of (i) Sultan Siraj-ud-daulah (ii) Mir Qasim (iii) Tipu Sultan

*    Prepare a time line showing the birth of Brahmo Samaj, Prarthana Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical society, Aligarh movement, Ram Krishna Mission.

*    Read the biographies of Raja Rammohan Roy, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Swami Dayanand, Sayyid Ahmed and Vivekanand and collect their views.

*    Visit a local Arya Samaj centre or Ram Krishna Mission and assess its activities.

*    Visit a nearby social welfare organisation and study its activities relating to promotion of education among women and deprived sections of Indian population and removal of untouchability.








Study Time : 40 hrs.


Marks : 22


This module is designed to examine critically the struggle for


independence in order to highlight the fact that this struggle involved


people of all regions and religious communities of India. The National


Movement regarded political independence as the essential pre-


requisites for the reconstruction of Indian society. It became a


movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. It also exposed


the British policy of divide and rule.


This module also highlights the significant achievements of India since


independence, inculcation of democratic values, economic resurgence,


social mobility, cultural development and advances in science and


technology. It also stresses India’s role in world affairs with special


reference to our neighbours and contribution to world peace.


Impact of the British rule in India, in more ways than one, was



responsible for the national struggle for independence.


  The social and religious reform movements of the 19th century



played an important role in the development of Indian nationalism.





Unit 1 The Revolt of 1857

General Foundation


Causes : remote and immediate ; course of the Revolt



Nature, Causes of failure and Results of the Revolt.


Unit 2 Factor contributing to the growth of Indian Nationalism


British policy : political and economic


Administrative unification of the country


Introduction of Western ideas and institution


A new awakening through Western education; rediscovery



of India’s past


Economic exploitation


Racial discrimination


Impact of press and literature


Impact of social and religious reforms.


Unit 3 Indian National Movement (1885-1905)

General Foundation

Early political movements


Establishment of the Indian National Congress


Policy of Indian National Congress till 1905


British Government’s attitude towards the Indian National Congress.



General Foundation        Unit 4 Growth of Indian National Movement (1906-1918)


-           The partition of Bengal and its consequences

-           The Swadeshi and Boycott Movements

-           Formation of the Muslim League (1906)

-           The Moderates and the Extremists: The Surat split of Indian National Congress (1907)

-           Inadequacy of Morley Reforms

-           The Revolutionary Activities

-           The Home Rule Movement

-           Lucknow Pact (1916)

-           Emergence of Mahatma Gandhi

-           Champaran Satyagraha


General Foundation        Unit 5 Struggle for Freedom (1919-1942)


-           The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms

-           The Rowlatt Act

-           The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

-           The Swarajists

-           Resurgence of the masses

-           The Simon Commission

-           Hindu-Muslim Relations

-           Lahore Congress and Poorna Swaraj

-           Revival of Revolutionary Activities

-           Civil Disobedience Movement

-           Round Table Conference

-           Growth of Socialist Ideas

-           Formation of Congress Ministries

-           International Developments and the Congress

-           All India State People Movement

-           New Communal Trends.


Certification                  Unit 6 Towards Poorna Swaraj 1942-1947


-           World War II and the Cripps Mission

-           Quit India Movement

-           Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army

-           Interim Government

-           Partition of India

-            Emergence of a Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.


Certification                  Unit 7 An Over-View


-           Features of the freedom movement


—   Participation by the masses

—   Emphasis on social reforms :-

(i)  Removal of Untouchability

(ii)  Emancipation of Women

—   Economic planning and rural reconstruction

—   Secular character

—   Leaders from all regions


Role of :

1. Abul Kalam Azad

2. Annie Besant

3.  Bal Gangadhar Tilak

4.  Bhagat Singh

5.  C. Rajgopalachari

6.  Gopal Krishna Gokhale

7.  Jawahar Lal Nehru

8.  Lala Lajpat Rai

9.  Mahatma Gandhi

10. Muhammad Ali Jinnah

11. Sardar Patel

12. Sarojini Naidu

13.  Subhas Chandra Bose

14. Subramania Bharati

15.  V.D. Savarkar


Certification                Unit 8   India Since Independence

—   Integration of princely states (1947-58)

—   Reorganisation of the Indian States.

—   India- A Democratic Republic

—   Democratic planning, process.

— Social Mobility—Decline of cast rigidities and untouchability.

—   Emancipation of woman.

—   Development of science and technology.

—   Problem of national integration.

—   Principles of Indian Foreign Policy

—   Indo-Pak Relations

—   Sino-Indian Relations

—   India’s Relations with Bangladesh

—   Non-Alignment Movement.


Suggested Activities for


Extended Learning — Visiting a nearby school/public library and collect material about the role of national leaders in the freedom struggle as listed above.


— Identifying important Centres of National Movement on a given map of India.


— Studying the text of (i) the Pledge of Independence on 20th January, 1930 (ii) The Quit India Resolution of 8th August, 1942. (iii) Nehru’s address to the Constituent Assembly of 15th August 1945.


—   Prepare a list of important Indian Exports in 1946-47.


— List the major Princely states which integrated with the Indian Union with dates.








Study Time : 30 hrs.


Marks : 10


This module is designed to acquaint the learner with the historical


geography of India from the pre-historic period to the attainment of


independence so as to relate the past to the present for reinforcing


the knowledge and understanding of the content areas covered under


the above modules (I to IX).


Knowledge of important historical land-marks covered in the



module I to IX.


Knowledge of important historical sites and geography of India.


Knowledge of successive changes in the political map of India



through the ages.




General Foundation

Unit 1 Maps



The Palaeolithic and the Neolithic settlements.



Ancient Trade Centres.



Empire of Kanishka.



The Gupta Empire.



Empire of Harsha



India’s Contact with Asian Countries.



India in 1210 A.D.


1.8               India under the Tughlaqs

1.9               India in the 15th Century

1.10            The Mughal Empire in 1605 A.D.

1.11            Kingdom of Shivaji 1680

1.12            Anglo-French War-1740-1761

1.13            Indian and European Settlements in 1705 A.D.

1.14            Major Indian States in 1750 A.D.

1.15            British Empire in India in 1805 A.D.

1.16            Kingdom of Ranjit Singh

1.17            Important Centres of the Revolt of 1857.

1.18            Major Indian States on the Eve of Independence

1.19            Famines in India in the 19th and 20th Centuries

1.20            Partition of India in 1947


Certification      Unit 2 Maps


2.1                Sites of the Harappan Culture

2.2                Asoka’s Empire

2.3                South India in 750 A.D.

2.4                The Chola Empire

2.5                The Khalji Empire 1320 A.D.

2.6                Political conditions of India in 1525 A.D.

2.7                The Mughal Empire in 1707 A.D.

2.8                The Maratha Empire in India in 1760 A.D.

2.9                The British Empire in 1856 A.D.

2.10             Important Centres of The Freedom Movement from 1920-47.



Pre-requisite            *  Studying the content of the various units with the map listed

Knowledge                   above.*   Practising the location/identification of the important historical places, trade routes, and centres, places related to national movements.

*   Use visual aids e.g. wall maps and historical Atlas wherever necessary to understand the appropriate textual material of the content.









Weightage of study






















Ancient Indian History





Climax of Ancient India





Legacy of Ancient India





Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate





The Mughal Empire





Contribution of Medival India





Renascent India





India’s Struggle for Independence




















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